Outcome Research Resources

The following is a curated list of resources by CASEL staff concerning outcome research on social and emotional learning (SEL). SEL outcome research examines the short- and long-term impacts of SEL programming.

Articles and Book Chapters

Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D. & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Development, 82, 405–432.
View the article.


Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., & Pachan, M. (2010). A meta-analysis of after-school programs that seek to promote personal and social skills in children and adolescents. American Journal of Community Psychology, 45, 294-309. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-010-9300-6
Article available for purchase.


Kopershock, H., Harms, T., de Boer, H., van Kuijk, M., & Doolaard, S. (2016). A meta-analysis of the effects of classroom management strategies and classroom management programs on students’ academic, behavioral, emotional, and motivational outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 86, 643-680. DOI: 10.3102/0034654315626799
Article available for purchase.


Mahoney, J. L., Durlak, J. A., & Weissberg, R. P. (2018). An update on social and emotional learning outcome research. Phi Delta Kappan, 100, 18-23.
Article available for purchase.


Sklad, M., Diekstra, R., Ritter, M. D., Ben, J. & Gravesteijn, C. (2012), Effectiveness of school-based universal social, emotional, and behavioral programs: Do they enhance students’ development in the area of skill, behavior, and adjustment? Psychology in the Schools, 49, 892–909.
Article available for purchase.


Taylor, R., Oberle, E., Durlak, J. A., & Weissberg, R. P. (2017). Promoting positive youth development through school-based social and emotional learning interventions: A meta-analysis of follow-up effects. Child Development, 88, 1156-1181. DOI:10.1111/cdev.12864
Article available for purchase.


Wiglesworth, M., Lendrum, A., Oldfield, J., Scott, A., ten Bokkel, I., Tate, K., & Emery, C. (2016). The impact of trial stage, developer involvement and international transferability on universal social and emotional learning programme outcomes: A meta-analysis. Cambridge Journal of Education, 46, 347-376. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305764X.2016.1195791
Article available for purchase.


Durlak, J. A., Domitrovich, C. E., Weissberg, R. P., & Gullotta, T. P. (Eds.) (2015). Handbook of social and emotional learning: Research and practice. New York: Guilford Press.
Book available for purchase.

Reports and briefs

American Institutes for Research (2015). CASEL/NoVo Collaborating Districts Initiative: 2014 cross-district outcome evaluation report. Washington DC: Author.
View the report.
National Commission on Social, Emotional, and Academic Development (2017). The evidence base for how we learn: Supporting students’ social, emotional, and academic development. Washington, DC: The Aspen Institute. Retrieved from: https://assets.aspeninstitute.org/content/uploads/2017/09/SEAD-Research-Brief-11.1.17.pdf
View the brief.


Dr. Kimberly Schonert-Reichl summarizes recent research. (10 minutes)

Recent research on science behind social and emotional learning. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FOL-Rn0QtEw
View video.