The Guide provides a systematic framework for evaluating the quality of social and emotional programs and applies this framework to identify and rate well-designed, evidence-based SEL programs with potential for broad dissemination to schools across the United States. The Guide also shares best-practice guidelines for district and school teams on how to select and implement SEL programs. Finally, it offers recommendations for future priorities to advance SEL research and practice. Below is the list of references used in the Guide.

  • A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


    Abbot, R, D., O’Donnell, J., Hawkins, J. D., Hill, K. G., Kosterman, R., & Catalano, R. F. (1998). Changing teaching practices to promote achievement and bonding to school. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68(4), 542-552.

    Aber, J. L., Brown, J. L., & Jones, S. M. (2003). Developmental trajectories toward violence in middle childhood: Course, demographic differences, and response to school-based intervention. Developmental Psychology, 39(2), 324-348.

    Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning Act of 2011HR4237, 112th Congress, 1st Sess. (2011).  

    Albright, M. I., & Weissberg, R. P. (2009). School-family partnerships to promote social and emotional learning. In S. L. Christenson & A. L. Reschley (Eds.), The handbook of school-family partnerships (pp. 246-265). New York: Routledge/Taylor and Francis Group.

    Allen, J. P., Pianta, R. C., Gregory, A., Mikami, A. Y., & Lun, J. (2011) An interaction-based approach to enhancing secondary school instruction and student achievement.  Science, 333, 1034–1037.


    Battistich, V., Schaps, E., Watson, M., & Solomon, D. (1996). Prevention effects of the child development project: Early findings from an ongoing multisite demonstration trail. Journal of Adolescent Research, 11, 12-35.

    Bear, G. G. (2010). School discipline and self discipline: A practical guide to promoting student prosocial behavior.  New York: Guilford.

    Bierman, K. L. & Erath, S. A. (2006). Promoting social competence in early childhood: Classroom curricula and social skills coaching programs. In K. McCartney & D. Phillips (Eds.), Blackwell Handbook on Early Childhood Development (pp. 595-615). Malden, MA: Blackwell.

    Blair, C. (2002). School readiness: Integrating cognition and emotion in a neurobiological conceptualization of children’s functioning at school entry. American Psychologist, 57(2), 111-127.

    Bond, L. A., & Carmola-Hauf, A. M. (2004). Taking stock and putting stock in primary prevention: Characteristics of effective programs. The Journal of Primary Prevention24(3), 199-221.

    Botvin, G. J., Baker, E., Dusenbury, L., Tortu, S., & Botvin, E. M. (1990). Preventing adolescent drug abuse through a multimodal cognitive-behavioral approach: Results of a 3-year study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58(4), 437-446.

    Bowman, B. T., Donovan, S., & Burns, M. S. (Eds.). (2001). Eager to learn: Educating our preschoolers.

    Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

    Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. A., 1998. The ecology of developmental processes. In W. Danon (Series Ed.) & R. M. Lerner (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 1. Theoretical models of human development (5th ed., pp. 993–1028). New York: Wiley.


    Camilli, G., Vargas, S., Ryan, S., & Barnett, W. S. (2010). Meta-analysis of the effects of early education interventions on cognitive and social development. Teachers College Record, 112(3). 579-620.

    Campbell, S. B.,& von Stauffenberg, C. (2008). Child characteristics and family processes that predict      behavioral readiness for school. In A. Booth & A. C. Crouter, (Eds.). Disparities in school readiness: How do families contribute to transitions into school? (pp. 225-258). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning. (2003). Safe and sound: An educational leader’s guide to evidence-based social and emotional learning programs. Chicago, IL: Author. 

    Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning. (2013). Implementing systemic district and school social and emotional learning. Chicago, IL: Author.

    Cohen, J. (2006). Social, emotional, ethical, and academic education: Creating a climate for learning, participation in democracy, and well-being. Harvard Educational Review, 76, 201–237.


    Denham, S.A., Brown, C., & Domitrovich, C.E. (2010). ‘Plays nice with others’: Social–emotional learning and academic success. Early Education and Development, 21(5), 652–680

    Denham, S. A., & Burton, R. (2003). Social and emotional prevention and intervention programming for preschoolers. New York: Springer.

    Denham, S. A., & Weissberg, R. P. (2004). Social-emotional learning in early childhood: What we know and where to go from here. In E. Chesebrough, P. King, T. P. Gullotta, & M. Bloom (Eds.), A blueprint for the promotion of prosocial behavior in early childhood (pp. 13–50). New York : Kluwer Academic/Plenum.

    Devaney, E., O’Brien, M. U., Resnik, H., Keister, S., & Weissberg, R. P. (2006). Sustainable schoolwide social and emotional learning: Implementation guide and toolkit. Chicago, IL: Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning.

    Diekstra, R.F.W. (2008). Effectiveness of school-based social and emotional education programmes worldwide. In Social and emotional education: An international analysis (pp. 255-312). Santender, Spain: Fundacion Marcelino Botin.

    Domitrovich, C., Bradshaw, C., Greenberg, M., Embry, D., Poduska, J., & Ialongo, N. (2011). Integrated models of school-based prevention: Logic and Theory. Psychology in the Schools, 47(1), 71-88.

    Durlak, J. A., & Dupre, E. P. (2008). Implementation matters: A review of research on the influence of implementation on program outcomes and the factors affecting implementation. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41, 327–350.

    Durlak, J., & Weissberg, R. P. (2010). Social and emotional learning programs that work. In R. Slavin (Ed.). Better evidence-based education: Social-emotional learning, 2, 4-5. York: Institute for Effective Education, University of York.

    Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., & Pachan, M. (2010). A meta-analysis of after-school programs that seek to promote personal and social skills in children and adolescents. American Journal of Community Psychology, 45, 294–309.

    Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). Enhancing students’ social and emotional development promotes success in school: Results of a meta-analysis. Child Development82, 405-432.

    Dusenbury, L., Zadrazil, J., Mart, A., & Weissberg, R. P. (2011). State learning standards to advance social and emotional learning. Chicago, IL: Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning.


    Elias, M. J. (1997). The missing piece: Making the case for greater attention to social and emotional learning. Education Week, December 3, 1997.

    Elias, M. J., Zins, J. E., Weissberg, R. P., Greenberg, M. S., Frey, K. S., Haynes, N. M., et al. (1997). Promoting social and emotional learning: Guidelines for educators. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

    Elias, M. J. (2006). The connection between academic and social-emotional learning. In M. J. Elias & H. Arnold (Eds.), The educator’s guide to emotional intelligence and academic achievement: Social-emotional learning in the classroom (pp. 4-14). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

    Elias, M., O’Brien, M. U., & Weissberg, R. P. (2006). Transformative leadership for social-emotional learning. Principal Leadership, 7(5), 10-13.


    Fullan, M., Bertrani, A., & Quinn, J. (2004) New lessons for districtwide reform. Educational Leadership, 61, 7-15.


    Goleman, D. (2005). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. New York: Bantam

    Greenberg, M. T., Domitrovich, C. E., Graczyk, P. A., & Zins, J. E. (2003). The study of implementation in school-based preventive interventions: Theory, research, and practice. Promotion of mental health and Prevention of Mental and Behavioral Disorder, 3, 1-62.

    Greenberg, M. T., Domitrovich, C. E., Graczyk, P. A., & Zins, J. E. (2005). The study of implementation in school-based preventive interventions: Theory, research, and practice (Vol. 3). Rockville, MD: Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

    Greenberg, M. T., Weissberg, R. P., O’Brien, M. U., Zins, J. E., Fredericks, L., Resnik, H., & Elias, M. J. (2003). Enhancing school-based prevention and youth development through coordinated social, emotional, and academic learning. American Psychologist, 58(6&7), 466-474.


    Hamre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. (2006). Student-teacher relationships. In G. G. Bear & K. M. Minke (Eds.), Children’s needs III: Development, prevention, and intervention (pp. 59–71). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

    Hamre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. (2007). Learning opportunities in preschool and early elementary classrooms. In R. Pianta, M. Cox, & K. Snow (Eds.), School readiness & the transition to kindergarten in the era of accountability (pp. 49–84). Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

    Hawkins, J. D., Smith, B. H., & Catalano, R. F. (2004). Social development and social and emotional learning.  In J. E. Zins, R. P. Weissberg, M. C. Wang, & H. J. Walberg (Eds.), Building academic success on social and emotional learning: What does the research say (pp. 135-150).  New York: Teachers College Press.


    January, A. M., Casey, R. J., & Paulson, D. (2011). A meta-analysis of classroom-wide interventions to build social skills: Do they work? School Psychology Review, 40(2), 242-256.


    Kam, C., Greenberg, M. T., & Walls, C. T. (2003). Examining the role of implementation quality in school-based prevention using the PATHS curriculum. Prevention Science, 4, 55–63.

    Kress, J. S., & Elias, M. J. (2006). School-based social and emotional learning programs. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Series Eds.) & K. A. Renninger & I. E. Sigel (Vol. Eds.),Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Child psychology in practice (6th ed., pp 592-618). New York: John Wiley & Sons.


    MacIver, M. A., & Farley, E. (2008). Bringing the district back in: The role of the central office in improving instruction and student achievement. Baltimore, MD. Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At Risk.

    Magnuson, K.,& Shager, H. (2010). Early education: Progress and promise for children from low-income families. Children and Youth Services Review, 32, 1186–1198

    Mashburn, A. J., & Pianta, R. C. (2006). Social relationships and school readiness. Early Education and Development, 17, 151–176.


    The NAESP Foundation Task Force on Early Learning. (2011). Building and supporting an aligned system: A vision for transforming education across the pre-Kto grade 3. Alexandria, VA: NAESP.

    NAEYC & NAECS/SDE. (2002). Early learning standards: Creating the conditions for success. Joint position statement. Washington, DC: NAEYC.

    Nation, M., Crusto, C., Wandersman, A., Kumpfer, K. L., Seybolt, D., Morrissey-Kane, E. &  Davino, K. (2003) What works in prevention: Principles of effective prevention practice.  American Psychologist, 50, 449-456.

    National Association for the Education of Young Children. (2009). Developmentally appropriate practice

    In early childhood programs serving children from birth through age 8. Washington, DC: NAEYC.

    NECF, 2003

    National Education Goals Panel. (1995). The national education goals report: Building a nation of learners. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

    National Research Council. (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

    National Research Council. (2009). Preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders among young people: Progress and possibilities. In M.E. O’Connell, T. Boat, & K.E. Warner, (Eds.). Committee on Prevention of Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse Among Children, Youth and Young Adults: Research Advances and Promising Interventions. Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

    National Research Council. (2012). Education for life and work: Developing transferable knowledge and skills in the 21st century. Committee on Defining Deeper Learning and 21st Century Skills, J. W. Pellegrino & M. L. Hilton (Eds). Board on Testing and Assessment and Board on Science Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

    National School Readiness Indicators Initiative (2005).  Getting ready: Findings from the National School Readiness Indicators Initiative.  Providence, RI: Rhode Island Kids Count.

    No Child Left Behind: The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 2001, 20 U.S.C. § 6319 (2008).


    Payton, J. W., Wardlaw, M. D., Graczyk, P. A., Bloodworth, M. R., Tompsett, C. J., & Weissberg, R. P. (2000). SEL: A framework for promoting mental health and reducing risk behavior in children and youth. Journal of School Health, 70(5), 179-185.

    Payton, J., Weissberg, R. P., Durlak, J., Dymnicki, A., Taylor, R., & Schellinger, K. (2008). The positive impact of social and emotional learning for kindergarten to eighth-grade students: Findings from three scientific reviews. Chicago, IL: Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning.


    Race to the Top Early Learning Challenge, 77 Federal Register, 36958-36964 (2012).

    Raver, C. C. (2002).  Emotions matter: making the case for the role of young children’s emotional development for early school readiness. Social Policy Report of the Society for Research in Child Development, 16(3).

    Resnicow, K., Cross, D., & Wynder, E. (1993). The know your body program: A review of evaluation studies: A review studies. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 70, 188-207.

    Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Wanless, S., Patton, C. & Deutsch, N. (2011). Teachers’ accounts of the process of teacher change: Examining fidelity of implementation. Paper presented at the Society for Research in Child Development, Montreal, Canada.

    Ringwalt, C. L., Ennett, S., Vincus, A., Throne, J., Rohrbach, L. A., & Simons- Rudolph, A. (2002). The prevalence of effective substance use prevention curricula in U.S. middle schools. Prevention Science, 3(4), 257-267.

    Rohrbach, L. A., Graham, J. W. & Hansen, W. B. (1993). Diffusion of a school-based substance abuse prevention program: Predictors of program implementation. Preventive Medicine, 22(2), 237-260.

    Rohrbach, L. A., Gunning, M., Sun, P., & Sussman, S. (2010). The Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND) dissemination trial: Implementation fidelity and immediate outcomes. Prevention Science, 11, 7788.

    Ross, J. G., Luepker, R. V., Nelson, G. D., Saavedra, P., & Hubbard, B. M. (1991). Teenage health teaching modules: Impact of teacher training on implementation and student outcomes. Journal of School Health61(1), 31-34.


    Schaps, E., Battistich, V., & Solomon, D. (2004). Community in school as key to student growth: Findings from the Child Development Project. In J. E. Zins, R. P. Weissberg, M. C. Wang, & H. J. Walberg (Eds.), Building academic success on social and emotional learning: What does the research say?  (pp. 189-207). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

    Shriver, T. P., & Weissberg, R. P. (1996, May). No new wars! Education Week, 15, 33–37.

    Smith, D. W., McCormick, L. K., Steckler, A. B., & McLeroy, K. R. (1993). Teachers’ use of health curricula: Implementation of Growing Healthy, Project SMART, and the Teenage Health Teaching Modules. Journal of School Health, 63(8), 349-354.


    Tappe, M.K., Galer-Unti, R.A., & Bailey, K.C. (1995). Long term implementation of Teenage Health Teaching Modules by trained teachers: A case study. Journal of School Health, 65(10), 411-415.


    Weare, K. & Nind, M. (2011). Mental health promotion and problem prevention in schools: What does the evidence say?  Health Promotion International, 26(s1), s29-s69.

    Weissberg, R. P. (2007). Advances in SEL research. American Educational Research Association, 1(1), 1-8.


    Zins, J. E., Weissberg, R. P., Wang, M. C., & Walberg, H. J. (Eds.). (2004).  Building academic success on social and emotional learning: What does the research say?  New York, NY:  Teachers College Press.